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  • 시장 개방 확대에 대응한 밭농업 경쟁력 제고 방안 연구(3/3차년도)
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						    시장 개방 확대에 대응한 밭농업 경쟁력 제고 방안 연구(3/3차년도)

    농업정책일반

    과제성격
    연구보고
    저자
    채광석 , 김연중, 김홍상, 김부영
    발행일
    2018.03.14

    ※ 원문보기 클릭 시 에러가 나는 경우 조치 방법 : "고객센터 - 자주하는 질문" 참조

  • Background of Research
    ○ In this three-year study, the first-year study focused on objective awareness of the current status of dry-field farming and the concretization of policy tasks. The second-year study presented the improvement of the production base, the efficient use of resources, ways t...

  • 목차

    • 제1장 서론
      제2장 밭작물 관련 소비 및 트렌드 변화 분석
      제3장 소비 변화에 대응한 지역 단위 밭농업 대응 방식
      제4장 밭농업 부가가치 현황과 성과 분석
      제5장 요약 및 결론

    요약문

    Background of Research
    ○ In this three-year study, the first-year study focused on objective awareness of the current status of dry-field farming and the concretization of policy tasks. The second-year study presented the improvement of the production base, the efficient use of resources, ways to organize farms in order to supplement their small scale as tasks for in-depth research.

    ○ The overall oversupply has decreased field crop prices, and with a continuous increase in imported agricultural products, more imports have replaced domestic products. This has led to a fall in field crop farms' income. Therefore, it is needed to prepare fundamental strategies to develop dry-field farming and measures to improve competitiveness.
    - The third-year study presents ways to increase the regional competitiveness of dry-field farming, including regional countermeasures and strategies to improve value added in terms of consumption, demand and production sustainability of field crops.

    ○ For the development of dry-field farming, it is necessary to establish an efficient, consumer-oriented supply system.
    - This study suggests concrete ways to improve the competitiveness of dry-field farming based on the findings of the first- and second-year studies. Particularly, this third-year study examines the possibility of regional responses for the competitiveness of dry-field farming by analyzing trends related to the consumption of field crops, and draws ways to enhance competitiveness by focusing on concrete cases.
    - While the existing methods to increase the competitiveness of dry-field farming have mainly concentrated on cutting costs and improving efficiency on the production side, this study derives ways to enhance the regional competitiveness of dry-field farming in consideration of consumption and demand.

    Methods of Research
    ○ To analyze consumers' preference related to consumption trends, keyword analysis was conducted. As keyword analysis, related word analysis and sentiment analysis were carried out. This study utilized social metrics provided by Daumsoft.

    ○ Case studies were conducted on 10 regions to identify cases of regions that are improving the competitiveness of dry-field farming, and to review ways to establish a regional field crop production and shipment system.

    ○ Quantitative analysis was carried out, including analyzing factors in an increase in farms' sales and analyzing the impact of a differentiation factor on agricultural auction prices by using data from the 2015 Agricultural Census and auction price data of the Garak-dong Wholesale Market.

    ○ A survey was conducted for producers and consumers.
    - The KREI consumer panel of 1,000 people was surveyed to identify purchase and consumption behavior related to agricultural products, considerations in purchasing the products, awareness of brands and certification systems, etc.
    - Also, 934 KREI local correspondents were surveyed to identify major activities and difficulties by farming activity in the value chain stage, demand for policy support, etc.

    ○ To examine policy implementation systems for the improvement of agricultural competitiveness, case studies on two advanced countries, France and Israel, were performed.
    - In France, the following were investigated: the production situation of fruits and vegetables, a quality assurance system, marketing strategies, methods to operate organizations of producers and business operators, and so on.
    - In Israel, the study focused on the performance and policy situation of investment in agricultural R&D.

    Changes in Consumption and Trends of Field Crops
    ○ According to the survey, when purchasing field crops, consumers mainly valued quality such as freshness, taste, and fragrance, and whether they are domestic products.
    - Consumers also consider brands, but they are less considered than safety (GAP etc.) and convenience (small packaging etc.). In addition, while consumers value whether field crops are domestic products, the proportion of those considering domestic producing areas was relatively low.

    ○ According to the result of analyzing keywords by utilizing SNS big data on major field crops, taste (texture), cooking tips (recipes, foods good to eat together), and effect were mentioned more than particular brands or producer groups.
    - Therefore, it is required to produce and distribute products whose taste and freshness can be maintained and whose recipes are easy.

    ○ It is important to maintain the taste (texture) of field crops that consumers want as well as to provide it. For this, it is necessary to create a distribution net that can maintain freshness.
    - The global e-commerce company Amazon launched AmazonFresh, the fresh food delivery service in 2007, and has delivered groceries in 24 hours after purchase. In Korea, Gmarket, Auction, Naver, Kakao and so forth sell fresh food. That is, the distribution structure of fresh food is changing from offline to online, and producers need to seek ways to use this distribution net.

    ○ In consideration of consumption types, small packaging and simple primary processing (washing, cutting, etc.) for easy cooking and intake are necessary.

    Regional Production Methods
    ○ To create the production base of dry-field farming, it is needed to first produce and disseminate seeds.
    - This is the most urgent stage for the systematization of dry-field farming. It is necessary to develop technologies for raising seeds and seedlings resistant to pest, disease, and viruses, and for easy harvest through mechanization.

    ○ Local governments should build active and systematic support systems for agricultural machine rental support policies.
    - For this, it is required to consider 1) jointly using agricultural machines among farms and purchasing agricultural machines for rental that suit regional situations, 2) purchasing small agricultural machines and attachments for dry-field farming, 3) building warehouses for agricultural machines for rental, 4) purchasing equipment for managing the machines including forklifts, and 5) creating a computing system to manage agricultural machines for rental, and so on.

    ○ The public function, including local governments, has contributed to establishing hardware. However, for future development, it is more important to innovate software such as the business ability of organizations in producing areas.
    - In planning and marketing, the role of organizations in producing areas has become more important.

    ○ It is needed to pursue a model that systematizes a value chain centered on production (the production system including farmland use, workforce use, and mechanization), distribution in producing areas (establishing APCs, nurturing distributing organizations in producing areas, etc.), and creation of value added such as the sixth industrialization (processing support, use of local products, and cooperative networking among small and medium-sized enterprises).
    - Using only one strategy is not effective. Efforts for innovation are in progress in all sectors including production, processing, creation of value added, and marketing. Although there are major strategic areas, all sectors of the value chain of major products are making efforts for innovation.

    ○ It is important to differentiate regional leadership, and form the pivot related to trust in products in the market, the organizing of farmers, the future outlook, etc. through the leadership. It is required to review the government's leading role for major products.
    - Regional diversification and the improvement of the risk management ability are important. Local governments also need various efforts.

    Current Status and Performance of Value Added of Dry-field Farming
    ○ As for the value added of dry-field farming, the proportion of operating surplus is higher compared to other industries. As of 2014, operating surplus accounts for 65.8% of value added items of dry-field farming, consumption of fixed capital 20.0%, and compensation of employees 12.2%.
    - The proportion of compensation of employees is very low compared to other industries. The reason is that field crops are produced mostly through self-labor or family labor.

    ○ As for the trends of changes in the value added of agriculture and forestry, the proportion of operating surplus has decreased gradually, while the proportion of consumption of fixed capital has been on a gradual increase.
    - The reason is that value added has increased through fixed capital investment, including large agricultural tools and farming-related facilities, for a more advanced profit structure of dry-field farming since the Uruguay Round.

    ○ According to the result of analyzing factors that affect the level of the sales of agricultural products, producer organizations' participation has a positive effect on an increase in the sales of agricultural and livestock products.
    - In particular, direct transactions of agricultural products through selling local specialties and operating direct sales stores have a positive effect on improving farms' value added by reducing distribution costs.

    ○ KREI local correspondents were surveyed concerning how much activities in each stage of the agricultural value chain contribute to enhancing value added.
    - In the input of production factors and production, the most important activities were developing differentiated varieties and managing the safety of agricultural products. In selection, processing, packaging and distribution sectors, the respondents responded that developing processed agricultural products and increasing direct transactions of agricultural products were important. In the sales sector, the respondents answered that it is important to improve sales methods such as the Internet and direct transactions in response to changes in the distribution market. Last, in the consumption sector, the most important activity was building consumer trust through quality standardization etc.
    - As for policy support activities that help to increase the value added of dry-field farming, the survey showed the highest demands for the "mechanization support project for dry-field farming" and "improvement of the production base of dry-field farming" regarding organizing farmers and scale-up.

    ○ The survey result on the present state of the use of agricultural brands shows that the number of the brands is 5,291 as of 2014, a 65% increase from 1999. This indicates that local governments and producer organizations have actively developed differentiated brands of agricultural products and sales strategies.
    - Nevertheless, overall consumers have a low level of awareness of field crop brands except for fruits. The majority of respondents responded the reason is that they cannot tell the difference in quality between branded agricultural products and general ones. In fact, an analysis of auction price data of the Garak-dong Wholesale Market shows that the difference between auction prices of major producing areas and non-major producing areas was not statistically significant. It means that major producing areas do not have brand premiums.
    Summary and Implications 1: Ways to Enhance Regional Competitiveness of Dry-field Farming
    ○ It is necessary to develop and disseminate technologies centered on field demand by uniting local governments, research institutions, and farmers' organizations from the R&D planning stage.
    - To create the production base of dry-field farming, it is needed to first produce and diffuse seeds that suit regional conditions. For example, the city of Yeoju produced virus-free sweet potato seedlings jointly with the Rural Development Administration and Gyeonggi-do Agricultural Research & Extension Services, thereby saving labor and farm operating costs considerably.

    ○ An active and systematic support system should be established for the agricultural machine rental support policy.
    - For this, it is required to consider 1) jointly using agricultural machines among farms and purchasing agricultural machines for rental that suit regional situations, 2) purchasing small agricultural machines and attachments for dry-field farming, 3) building warehouses for agricultural machines for rental, 4) purchasing equipment for managing the machines including forklifts, and 5) creating a computing system to manage agricultural machines for rental, and so on.

    ○ A workforce support project should be implemented so that each region can solve the problem of agricultural labor shortage autonomously.
    - In Namhae-gun, Saenamhae Agricultural Cooperative is operating a garlic growing workforce support project as its own business that highlights regional characteristics. The cooperative operates a garlic farming support group; the administration covers 50% of the expenses, the cooperative 10%, and farm households 40%. Changnyeong-gun also runs a manpower bank.

    ○ It is necessary to develop leadership education programs for organizing farmers that enable cooperation and solidarity of various actors in each region.
    - To improve the regional competitiveness of dry-field farming, regional farmers should be organized first. Whether a region has a leader who can lead organizing farmers can affect the competitiveness of dry-field farming in the region. Therefore, different regions need differentiated, diverse forms of leadership.

    ○ In consideration of consumption types, small packaging and simple primary processing (washing, cutting, etc.) for easy cooking and intake are necessary.
    - Recently, in addition to the trend of small packaging, the sales of special offer products have increased, including mixed fruit sets and meal kits. Thus, it is required to develop fresh-cut or processed products beyond the stage of distributing original products as a commercialization strategy.

    ○ Maintaining freshness is an important task; for this, it is necessary to establish an online-centered distribution net of the cold chain system.
    - The distribution structure of fresh food is changing from offline to online, and producers need to seek ways to use this distribution net.

    ○ It is needed to manage regional joint brands by enacting ordinances in cities and counties.
    - Each city/county should strictly manage quality by specifying quality control standards in ordinances. Goodtrae of Buyeo-gun is a representative success case of regional brand marketing. Buyeo-gun enacted ordinances to thoroughly control the quality of Goodtrae products, and has selected actors for managing the brand. Also, farmers who participate in brand agriculture receive differentiated support.

    Summary and Implications 2: Ways to Improve the Government-level System
    ○ The existing centralized R&D organizations should be dispersed to regions to enable field-based research.
    - The unilinear system with dissemination and diffusion after government-led R&D has not satisfied demands for a variety of research and diffusion (dissemination and commercialization). Major developed countries (the US, Japan, and Israel) have regional research centers for research suitable for specialized regional environments. It is necessary to develop and disseminate technologies centered on field demand through the three-party solidarity of a research institution (ARO), agricultural extension (SHAHAM), and farms.

    ○ It is needed to introduce a seasonal foreign worker program.
    - It is important to increase short-term labor supply through regional manpower banks or manpower support projects. However, it is also required to provide information to create an efficient and transparent workforce market. To this end, a seasonal foreign worker program can be considered by referring to a Swiss case.

    ○ For a temporary response to the Korea-China FTA, the account for improving major producing areas should be switched from the regional balance special account to the special account for rural areas.
    - It is needed to avoid uniform project implementation centered on the central government, set up region-centered development plans, and select base improvement methods that suit the plans by considering the regionality of dry-field farming. Nevertheless, government-led implementation is necessary to secure stable finances. It should be understood in terms of creating production conditions of high value-added agricultural products as well as establishing the minimum farming base.

    ○ It is required to build a system for supporting the purchase of domestic ingredients of processed agricultural products.
    - The purchase costs of domestic ingredients are higher than those of imported ingredients. To lessen the burden, the government should support exporting agricultural enterprises that process domestic ingredients. It is necessary to expand support for ingredient-purchasing funds, distribution costs for export, marketing and so on for exporting enterprises that use domestic ingredients.

    ○ An agricultural products quality assurance system should be established.
    - The survey result shows a low level of consumer trust in domestic certification of GAP, environment-friendly products, and agricultural products traceability management, and consumer trust in local governments' quality certification systems is low. It is required to enhance the value of agricultural products and create value added by introducing a stricter quality assurance system familiar to consumers, as in France.

    Researchers: Chae Gwangseok, Kim Hongsang, Kim Yeanjung, Kim Booyoung
    Research period: 2017. 1. ~ 2017. 12.
    E-mail address: gschae@krei.re.kr

    저자정보

    채광석 이미지

    저자소개
    채광석 (Gwangseok Chae, Hongsang Kim, Yeanjung Kim, Booyoung Kim)
    - 연구위원
    - 소속 : 환경·자원연구센터

    저자에게 문의

    채광석 이미지

    저자소개
    채광석 (Gwangseok Chae, Hongsang Kim, Yeanjung Kim, Booyoung Kim)
    - 연구위원
    - 소속 : 환경·자원연구센터
    저자에게 문의

    보고서 이미지

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