이 연구는 개도국의 농업개발을 위한 우리나라 개발협력(ODA)의 전략을 수립하는 데 도움을 주고자 수행되었다. 우리나라의 한정된 예산과 자원으로 효율적으로 협력사업을 추진하기 위하여 140개가 넘는 전 세계 개발도상국 가운데 꼭 필요한 15개 내외의 국가를 선정하고, 이들 국가가 필요로 하는 지원 분야를 파악하여 향후 구체적인 개발협력사업을 발굴하고자 하는 것이다.
이러한 목적 아래 이 보고서는 다양한 데이터베이스의 통계자료와 정보들을 활용하여 중점협력대상국을 선정하여 제시하였다. 아울러 협력 분야를 파악해내기 위하여 최근 중요한 접근방법으로 떠오르고 있는 가치사슬 분석방법, 이해관계자 분석방법 등을 자세히 설명하였다. 특히 개도국의 지속가능한 성장과 발전의 주체가 될 민간 부문의 개발을 강조하고 이와 관련된 사업 분야를 제안하였다.
중장기 과제로 추진되는 이 연구는 이제 금년도에 선정한 국가들을 대상으로 보다 구체적으로 개발협력 분야를 파악하고 협력 전략을 수립하기 위한 차년도 단계로 넘어가게 된다. 이를 위해 이 보고서 말미에 가이드라인을 제시하였다.
Background & Purpose of Research
This is the first year report of multi-year research. It is to provide policy suggestions for enhancing ODA effectiveness in agriculture and forestry sectors, especially through focusing upon the private sector’s roles, and applying analytical tools of value chains and stakeholders. The main purpose of the research is, therefore, to provide in-depth strategic suggestions by analyzing current situations and challenges of carefully selected focus countries, and digging out key development cooperation areas.
The first year, 2018, is devoted to developing research methodologies for the next years, and, from the second year, it is planned to establish strategic policy directions for the selected focus countries.
With a comprehensive review of literature related with the research topics, statistical analysis process has been implemented to select focus countries. Out of databases, for instance, FAOSTAT, raw data on 143 developing countries were selected, weighted and aggregated. AHP analysis was adopted to decide weight of each category and indicator.
Experts from domestic and international—Bangladesh and Azerbaijan—research institutes were requested to undertake researches on areas of cooperation and value chains. Face-to-face interviews were also used for in-depth understanding of situations of agriculture and forestry sectors of Paraguay and Bangladesh.
Results and Implications
By utilizing data from FAOSTAT of FAO, Databank of the World Bank, and others, related statistics were gathered on four categories, government policy, areas in which development cooperation is required, readiness of cooperation, and business conditions. AHP analysis produced weights for categories and indicators, and ultimately lists of focus countries were derived on the agriculture sector, forestry sector, and agriculture-forestry sector.
For developing value chain analysis of the agricultural sector of developing countries, conceptual definition, points of difference from supply chain, methodology, analytical framework, and cases of USAID and the World Bank were reviewed and introduced. UNIDO’s five steps for value chain analysis were adopted to apply to agriculture and forestry sectors of developing countries: identification of objects, mapping, cost and benefit analysis, analysis on structural and dynamic factors, and strategy establishment.
With regard to stakeholder analysis, methodological cases of British ODA and DFID, and KOICA were provided. In applying to the agriculture and forestry sector analysis, it is suggested to proceed the following phases: understanding project types and features, identifying and listing key stakeholders, grouping stakeholders and grasping their interests, checking possibilities of cooperation from stakeholders and their capacities, and forming a matrix to indicate influence and importance of stakeholders.
Private sector development, PSD, is an emerging area for sustainable development cooperation and creation of new sources of fund. The level of support is classified as upper-stream (macro-level), mid-stream, and down-stream (micro-level), whereas areas of support are investment environment, infrastructure, and productive capacity. This research estimated current ODA budget assigned for PSD, which is 67 million USD in 2016 in terms of support level, and 81 million USD in terms of support areas; however, it was hard to find out any consistencies in yearly changes. The research also suggested potential areas of development projects for developing the private sector of partner countries.
Development policy experiences and areas of comparative advantages of Korea were introduced as parts of guidelines for development cooperation strategy. Eight areas were figured out including rice productivity improvement, agricultural technology R&D and extension, forestation, and so forth. Tables of contents of strategic documents from a few international organizations, JICA and KOICA, were compared and contrasted, to suggest some ideas on the formats and contents of strategic researches which will be undertaken from the next year.
Researchers: Heo Jang, Seok Hyundeok, Cha Wonkyu, Lee Yoonjung, Jeong Dongyeol
Research period: 2018. 1. ~ 2018. 12.
E-mail address: email@example.com
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